Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

ABR

Adaptive Bitrate

Adaptive bitrate streaming is a technique used in streaming multimedia over IP networks. While in the past most video streaming technologies utilized streaming protocols such as RTP with RTSP, today's adaptive streaming technologies are almost exclusively based on HTTP and designed to work efficiently over large distributed HTTP networks such as the Internet.

Administrator Secret

Admin Secret

A unique administrator-level security string assigned to a specific Kaltura Partner. This is used by the Kaltura servers as a key for authenticating admin API sessions initiated by client-side applications utilizing Kaltura technology.

AES

Advanced Encryption Standard

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher that uses the same key for encryption and decryption. AES is implemented in software and hardware throughout the world to encrypt sensitive data. It is essential for government computer security, cybersecurity and electronic data protection.

API

Application Programming Interface

An application programming interface (API) is a computing interface which defines interactions between multiple software intermediaries. It defines the kinds of calls or requests that can be made, how to make them, the data formats that should be used, the conventions to follow, etc. It can also provide extension mechanisms so that users can extend existing functionality in various ways and to varying degrees. An API can be entirely custom, specific to a component, or it can be designed based on an industry standard to ensure interoperability. Through information hiding, APIs enable modular programming, which allows users to use the interface independently of the implementation.

Aspect Ratio

The ratio between any two dimensions, as width and height. Most common ratios of videos are: 4:3 – normal screen, 16:9 – wide screen.

B

Bumper video

Typically refers to a linear video ad with a clickable call-to-action; format is usually shorter than full linear ads (i.e. 3-10 seconds) and the call-to-action can usually load another video or can bring up a new site while pausing the content.

C

CDN

Content Delivery Network

A content delivery network or content distribution network is a system of computers networked together across the Internet that cooperate transparently to distribute content for the purposes of improving performance and scalability.

CMS

Content Management System

A content management system (CMS) is an application that is used to manage web content, allowing multiple contributors to create, edit and publish. Content in a CMS is typically stored in a database and displayed in a presentation layer based on a set of templates.

Codec

Compressor/Decompressor. Technology used to compress and decompress computer data, such as audio or video files.

CRUD

Create-Read-Update-Delete(operations on a given object)

D

DB

Database

Decision Layer

An independent chunk of code that contains the logic for choosing between multiple courses of action according to a given input. In Kaltura, the media transcoding decision layer, is the party that automatically decides which encoder engine to use and how given a source media file and desired set of output media flavors.

Destination

A media provider or video sharing site.

Distribution

Publishing media entries in a destination site.

DLM

Device Limitation

DMS

Device Management System

DRM

Digital Rights Management

Digital rights management (DRM) is a systematic approach to copyright protection for digital media. The purpose of DRM is to prevent unauthorized redistribution of digital media and restrict the ways consumers can copy content they've purchased.

E

E2E

End-to-End

ECDN

Enterprise Content Delivery Network

Enterprise content delivery network (eCDN) providers offer access to a network of servers capable of improving website performance, content delivery, and application availability on an enterprise scale. CDN services rely on geographically dispersed points of presence, known as PoPs, that help route the delivery of digital content from the origin server to one that is as close to the browsing user as possible. Organizations use eCDN services, such as web caching, request routing, and server-load balancing, to reduce load times and improve website performance.

ECM

Enterprise Content Management

End-User Entitlements

A permission level that enables a specific end‑user to access, contribute to, or manage a specific channel or category. In the Kaltura backend, end‑user entitlements are managed in Kaltura’s categoryUser object, which manages the relationship between a specific end‑user and a specific category.

Entry ID

A string identifier generated by the Kaltura servers to uniquely identify assets (Entries) in the Kaltura Platform.

Entry Point

(Live video) The nearest physical location where a CDN network can ingest a live feed to the delivery network.

EPG

Electronic Program Guide

F

FE

Front End

Flavor

A rendition of an entry with specific attributes, such as bitrate and dimensions. The entry may be a video, audio, image, or a document.

FLV

Flash Video is a file format used to deliver video over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player or other browser plug-ins. One of the most popular formats for embedded video on the web.

FMLE

Adobe Flash Media Live Encoder is video capture software and audio capture software designed to capture live audio and video while streaming it in real time.

FMS

Flash Media Server

Flash Media Server (FMS) is a proprietary data and media server from Adobe. [Adobe] Alternatives to FMS include Red5, Wowza and Mammoth.

G

GA

General Availability

Glossary

This glossary describes the terminology and acronyms often used by the Kaltura Community to describe concepts in Media Management, Online Video and the Kaltura Platform.

Group ID

A unique identifier in your organizational information system representing an actual organizational unit or an ad-hoc security group. A user can be a member of multiple groups and may hold a different organizational role in each group. The organizational role of a user within a unit/group may or may not be represented within the organization information system.

H

HLS

HTTP Live Streaming

HSS

HTTP Smooth Streaming

HTML5

HTML5 is a set of web standards being developed by the "Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group". The HTML5 standard includes many new features for more dynamic web applications and interfaces. One such component being specified and implemented is the element. Using Kaltura's HTML5 Javascript Library, your videos can be played back on the latest mobile devices and even on older browsers that require Flash. See http://html5video.org/ .

I

iOS

iDevice Operating System

Apple's proprietary mobile OS, developed and distributed exclusively for Apple hardware.

IP

Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

K

KAF

Kaltura Application Framework

The Kaltura Application Framework (KAF) is an extensible, feature rich, UI based configurable framework that streamlines the integration of Kaltura’s rich media capabilities into different publishing applications. The framework is constructed of modules that provide a packaged workflow and functionalities that can be easily embedded in another application as an iFrame, instead of integrating directly with the Kaltura APIs. The framework can decrease the integration time with your application dramatically and allow you to always get up to date new functionality by decoupling the added features from the integration itself. The embedded iFrames are all based on a responsive design to ensure that the integrated pages are displayed properly on any given area.

Kaltura Admin Console

An application for administering the Kaltura system, including management of Kaltura publisher accounts, transcoding queue, access to the service-level monitoring, users, batch processes and more. The Kaltura Admin Console is typically accessed by system administrators and the IT team.

Kaltura API Client Libraries

Kaltura client libraries are SDKs in numerous programming languages that provide easy access to the Kaltura API and facilitate developing Kaltura applications.

Kaltura Application

Self-contained, client-side combination of Kaltura widgets and server APIs, tailored to support specific media workflows or as an extension to a specific web content platform.

Kaltura Category

A Kaltura backend object for managing media collections and the end‑user entitlements to access and manage these media collections in MediaSpace. This backend entity manages MediaSpace Channels and MediaSpace Categories.

Kaltura Category ID

A Kaltura internal unique identifier of a single Kaltura Category Object.

Kaltura Category Reference ID

A Kaltura Category attribute designed to hold and connect the category to an external identifier such as the Group ID. Uniqueness of the Category Reference ID is not enforced by Kaltura.

Kaltura Cloud Edition

Kaltura’s Cloud Edition allows you to host your own edition of Kaltura’s Video Platform Software on one of our commercial cloud partners, including Amazon Web Services and the Rackspace Cloud.

Kaltura Community Edition

Kaltura's free, open-source, self-hosted version of the platform, supported by the Kaltura Community. The Community Edition is developed through the combined efforts of Kaltura and the community. The platform and its source code are available for free at www.kaltura.org.

Kaltura Entry

A Kaltura Entry is a logical reference to your media asset. An entry encapsulates all physical media files generated during ingestion (source, “flavors” and thumbnails), standard and custom metadata, captions, scheduling settings, advertising cu epoints, specific access control settings and all other components relating to the content. An entry is generated immediately, once your source media file starts uploading and transcoding begins. Kaltura Entry types include base (Abstract), media, video, audio, image, data, document, playlist and more. Entry metadata includes type, storage location, title, tag, rating and etc. [API: KalturaBaseEntry, KalturaMediaEntry]

Kaltura Gallery

A Kaltura Gallery is a simple application that provides an efficient visual display of media entries, hosted on a Kaltura server.

Kaltura Metadata

"Data about other data". This term is commonly used within Kaltura documentation to describe the information being stored within the Kaltura database with relation to a specific entry. This may include: name, tags, admin tags, creation/modification dates, description, partner data etc. Kaltura's Metadata is a complex XSD driven multi-profile schema of fields.

Kaltura On-Prem Edition

Kaltura's full featured self-hosted Video Platform Software installed on your own servers or cloud and supported and maintained by Kaltura. The On-Prem Edition is offered either under an Enterprise license for organizations that need an online video platform for their own media, or under an OEM license for organizations that want to offer their own OVP services. Both licenses are offered with Kaltura maintenance and support services.

Kaltura Player

A critical piece of every video workflow is the playback and the user-experience while interacting with video. The Kaltura Video Player library abstracts the complexities around delivery of video across devices, browsers and native apps and the user-experience with your video. It provides a cross-platform rich UI framework, easy branding and customization features and even in-video quizzes, advertizing integrations, and a robust plugins-framework to create your own unique expeirences.

Kaltura SaaS Edition

Kaltura's full-featured Software-as-a-Service video platform, including full Kaltura support and services such as tier-1 hosting, streaming, delivery, transcoding, syndication, distribution, advertising, security, monitoring and more.

Kaltura Schema

A schema is a model for describing the structure of information. Each data schema holds a list of customized fields. An XSD (XML Schema Definition) provides a way to describe and validate data in an XML environment.

Kaltura Server Notifications

HTTP POST requests that are sent upon specific media events from the Kaltura servers to a URL on partners' host servers. Kaltura server notifications enable partners to integrate with Kaltura’s technology in a way that is synchronized with media events occurring on Kaltura’s servers. An example of a Kaltura server notification is the entry_add notification, sent upon the completion of entry creation on the Kaltura servers. Partners can process this notification and enable or display this entry on their web site, only once it was actually added to the Kaltura servers.

Kaltura User

A Kaltura backend object that holds information about a specific user and is identified by the User ID. Kaltura supports the management of different user attributes. The user ID is a mandatory attribute; the user’s first name, last name, and screen name (by default, the user’s full name) are required to enable convenient end-user management in MediaSpace and in the KMC. Kaltura User objects are automatically created in Kaltura for different scenarios. For user management purposes, Kaltura User objects also may be created manually from the KMC or using bulk services. The Kaltura User object is used for managing both KMC admins and application end‑users. Only KMC administrators have a special attribute granting access to the KMC account.

Kaltura Video Editing Tools

The Kaltura Video Editing Tools allow users to edit quizzes, clip or trim media, chop and splice media and add Hotdpots or advertisements to media. Note: Depending on the type of application you are using and the type of media you selected, the Video Editor window displays the relevant tabs.

Kaltura Widget

Self-contained client-side components encapsulating graphics, media functionality and events control along with direct access to Kaltura APIs.

KDP

Kaltura Dynamic Player

Kaltura widget for media playing, providing graphics and direct API access for media streaming, playing, sharing, sound control, advertising and more.

KEA

Kaltura Editor Application

See Kaltura Video Editing Tools.

KES

Kaltura Edge Server

Based on Nginx. A component that helps content be accessible wherever users are (remote sites as well the Headquarters/data-center, near the streaming server). Helps cache popular content for VOD and HTTP-based live (HDS/HLS), supports pre-positioning of content. Similar to CDN POP (node/edge). Purge scheduling is configured on the edge itself.

KMC

Kaltura Management Console

The KMC is a rich-media management system that enables you to ingest, manage, publish, distribute, monetize and analyze your media – all in one intuitive interface. You can use the KMC as an independent application, or as an administrative interface supporting other Kaltura applications.

KMS

Kaltura MediaSpace

Kaltura MediaSpace is a video portal for every Campus or a Corporate. Kaltura’s MediaSpace application, allows publishers to instantly launch a video-centric website, where users can search, browse, watch, create, share and edit videos, and video presentations, with full user management, and moderation options.

KS

Kaltura Session

Use the Login request to create an active session for a user. The login request returns a user session key called KS (Kaltura Session). The KS is mandatory for all user’s consecutive calls within that session.The KS is used to authenticate users and admins when calling the Kaltura API.

KSS

Kaltura Streaming Server

Based on the Wowza streaming server. Responsible for getting the stream from the encoder, segmenting it, packaging it, translating it to multiple bitrates on-the-fly, delivering it in several possible formats (HDS, HLS, etc.) and more. This component is the content origin. Usually resides in the customer’s Data Center.

kuser

Kaltura User

An object representing end-user with various permissions or roles. [API Kaltura User]

L

Latency

Live video - The delay that a viewer experiences between delivery of a video image and its audio signal. Media player - The delay that a viewer experiences between pressing Play and viewing a video.

LMS

Learning Management System

M

MA

Media Asset

MA-MS

Multi Audio-Multi Subtitle

MediaSpace Category

An open/private/restricted category in MediaSpace that a specific group of users (category members) is able to access. Categories are centrally created via the Kaltura Management Console (KMC) and reflect the navigation structure of your MediaSpace site. The list of people with permission to access the category may derive from user membership in a specific organizational group or may be defined manually by the category manager with no relation to organizational structure and units.

MediaSpace Channel

An open/private/restricted channel in MediaSpace that a specific group of users (channel members) is able to access. The list of people with permissions to access the group channel may derive from user membership in a specific organizational group or may be defined manually by the channel manager with no relation to organizational structure and units. Note: MediaSpace Channels can be associated with one or more MediaSpace Category according to the entitlements set in the category.

Midroll

A pre-roll is a video advertisement that appears at the middle of media content.

MRSS

Media Really Simple Syndication

Media Really Simple Syndication (or Media RSS) is a web feed format used to export your videos, audio, and images to 3rd party platforms such as Google, Bing!, iTunes, and other video sharing sites and social networks. Once the MRSS feed is applied on your Kaltura app, audiance can subscribe and get notified each time that their website or application is updated.

N

NPVR

Network DVR

Network personal video recorder (NPVR) or Network DVR (NDVR), or remote storage digital video recorder (RS-DVR) is a network-based digital video recorder (DVR) stored at the provider's central location rather than at the consumer's private home. Traditionally, media content was stored in a subscriber's set-top box hard drive, but with NDVR the service provider owns a large number of servers, on which the subscribers' media content is stored. The term RS-DVR is used by Cablevision for their version of this technology.

O

OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer

Kaltura can be licensed under a commercial OEM license, allowing partners to launch their own self-hosted, white labeled, customized online video platform services using their data center or cloud or choice.

On Prem

On Premises

On-premises is the software and technology that is located within the physical confines of an enterprise – often in the company's data center – as opposed to running remotely on hosted servers or in the cloud.

OOTB

Out-Of-The-Box

OpCo

(Vodafone) Operational Country Organization

Open Source

Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.

ORM

Object-relational mapping. Allows access to a database using a set of objects. Kaltura uses open source Propel as its ORM solution.

OS

Operating System

OSS

Operational Support System

OTT

Over The Top

OVP

Open Video Platform

P

PaaS

Platform as a Service

Platform as a service (PaaS) is cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.

PID

Partner ID

The Kaltura Account ID (Partner Id) A numeric identifier that uniquely identifies an account in Kaltura. The Partner ID can be retrieved through the KMC via the Integration Settings.

Playlist

A list of playable media entries (video, image, audio). A Kaltura Playlist can be created according to a static list of entries or a rule-based dynamically generated list. It can be randomized or ordered according to rules. The Kaltura Players also have a special UI plugin for rendering playlists, allowing playback navigation and search in the playlist.

Postroll

A pre-roll is a video advertisement that appears at the end of media content.

PPS

Packets Per Second

Preroll

A pre-roll is a video advertisement that appears at the beginning of media content.

PS

Professional Services

puser

An entity used to describe a publisher's end-user. This is not a Kaltura User, but a user identified via external publisher systems such as company's LDAP or SSO systems.

R

RFP

Request For Proposal

ROI

Return On Investment

Is a ratio between net profit (over a period) and cost of investment (resulting from an investment of some resources at a point in time). A high ROI means the investment's gains compare favourably to its cost. As a performance measure, ROI is used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiencies of several different investments.

RTMP

Real-Time Messaging Protocol

Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) is a proprietary protocol, originally developed by Macromedia (now Adobe), for real-time streaming of video, audio, and data between a server and Flash player. Though Adobe has announced that it will no longer support Flash, RTMP remains a commonly used protocol for live streaming within production workflows.

S

SaaS

Software as a Service

Software as a Service, also known as cloud application services, represents the most commonly utilized option for businesses in the cloud market. SaaS utilizes the internet to deliver applications, which are managed by a third-party vendor, to its users. A majority of SaaS applications run directly through your web browser, which means they do not require any downloads or installations on the client side.

Scrubber

A scale line in a media player. Usually used as a progress bar and for moving/seeking withing the video playback.

SME

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

SOW

Statement of Work

SP

SharePoint

SSO

Single Sign-On

Single sign-on (SSO) is an authentication scheme that allows a user to log in with a single ID and password to any of several related, yet independent, software systems.

STB

Set-Top Box

Streaming

Transmission of digital audio or video, or the listening and viewing of such data without first storing it. Streaming is mostly measured by the amount of bandwidth consumed while serving content.

Sub Partner ID

A numeric identifier originally defined to enable sub partitioning of Kaltura accounts. The value of the Sub Partner ID is always 100 X Partner ID (100 multiplied by the Publisher ID).

Sunrise

In Scheduling, the time that an entry becomes accessible to end users in the destination site.

Sunset

In Scheduling, the time that an entry becomes inaccessible to end users in the destination site.

SVOD

Streaming Video On Demand

SWF

‘Small Web Format’ by Adobe. This is the dominant format for displaying "animated" vector graphics on the web, also supporting audio, video and many different possible forms of interaction with the end-user.

SWFObject

An open-source JavaScript library used to embed Adobe Flash content within web pages while dealing with player version detection and avoiding broken SWF content.

T

Tags

A non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to an entry to help describe it and allow it to be found again through a search. Tags are often used to relate media together.

TBD

To Be Defined

Thumbnail

A small version of an image, or an image representing a video, commonly used for preview purposes.

Transcoding

Direct digital-to-digital conversion of one encoding to another.

TSTV

Time Shifted Television

TVE

TV Everywhere

TVOD

Transactional Video On Demand

U

UDID

Unique Device Identifier

UGC

User-generated content

UI

User Interface

uiConf ID

The uiConf_ID is used to reference the player instance you wish to render when embedding a video in your pages or app views.

UID

User ID

A user’s unique identifier in your organization’s information systems. The same ID is used in Kaltura as a unique identifier of the user in a specific partner account.

URI

Uniform Resource Identifier

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

User ID

A user’s unique identifier in your organization’s information systems. The same ID is used in Kaltura as a unique identifier of the user in a specific partner account.

User Secret

A unique end-user-level security string assigned to a specific Kaltura Partner. This is used by the Kaltura servers as a key for authenticating end-user API sessions initiated by client-side applications utilizing Kaltura technology.

V

VOD

Video On Demand

VPaaS

Video-Platform-as-a-Service

W

White Labeling

The ability for a publisher to re-brand the Kaltura solutions as its own.