Adaptive bitrate streaming is a technique used in streaming multimedia over IP networks. While in the past most video streaming technologies utilized streaming protocols such as RTP with RTSP, today's adaptive streaming technologies are almost exclusively based on HTTP and designed to work efficiently over large distributed HTTP networks such as the Internet.
A unique administrator-level security string assigned to a specific Kaltura Partner. This is used by the Kaltura servers as a key for authenticating admin API sessions initiated by client-side applications utilizing Kaltura technology.
Advanced Encryption Standard
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher that uses the same key for encryption and decryption. AES is implemented in software and hardware throughout the world to encrypt sensitive data. It is essential for government computer security, cybersecurity and electronic data protection.
Application Programming Interface
An application programming interface (API) is a computing interface which defines interactions between multiple software intermediaries. It defines the kinds of calls or requests that can be made, how to make them, the data formats that should be used, the conventions to follow, etc. It can also provide extension mechanisms so that users can extend existing functionality in various ways and to varying degrees. An API can be entirely custom, specific to a component, or it can be designed based on an industry standard to ensure interoperability. Through information hiding, APIs enable modular programming, which allows users to use the interface independently of the implementation.
The ratio between any two dimensions, as width and height. Most common ratios of videos are: 4:3 – normal screen, 16:9 – wide screen.
Typically refers to a linear video ad with a clickable call-to-action; format is usually shorter than full linear ads (i.e. 3-10 seconds) and the call-to-action can usually load another video or can bring up a new site while pausing the content.
Content Delivery Network
A content delivery network or content distribution network is a system of computers networked together across the Internet that cooperate transparently to distribute content for the purposes of improving performance and scalability.
Content Management System
A content management system (CMS) is an application that is used to manage web content, allowing multiple contributors to create, edit and publish. Content in a CMS is typically stored in a database and displayed in a presentation layer based on a set of templates.
Compressor/Decompressor. Technology used to compress and decompress computer data, such as audio or video files.
Create-Read-Update-Delete(operations on a given object)
An independent chunk of code that contains the logic for choosing between multiple courses of action according to a given input. In Kaltura, the media transcoding decision layer, is the party that automatically decides which encoder engine to use and how given a source media file and desired set of output media flavors.
A media provider or video sharing site.
Publishing media entries in a destination site.
Device Management System
Digital Rights Management
Digital rights management (DRM) is a systematic approach to copyright protection for digital media. The purpose of DRM is to prevent unauthorized redistribution of digital media and restrict the ways consumers can copy content they've purchased.
Enterprise Content Delivery Network
Enterprise content delivery network (eCDN) providers offer access to a network of servers capable of improving website performance, content delivery, and application availability on an enterprise scale. CDN services rely on geographically dispersed points of presence, known as PoPs, that help route the delivery of digital content from the origin server to one that is as close to the browsing user as possible. Organizations use eCDN services, such as web caching, request routing, and server-load balancing, to reduce load times and improve website performance.
Enterprise Content Management
A permission level that enables a specific end‑user to access, contribute to, or manage a specific channel or category. In the Kaltura backend, end‑user entitlements are managed in Kaltura’s categoryUser object, which manages the relationship between a specific end‑user and a specific category.
A string identifier generated by the Kaltura servers to uniquely identify assets (Entries) in the Kaltura Platform.
(Live video) The nearest physical location where a CDN network can ingest a live feed to the delivery network.
Electronic Program Guide
A rendition of an entry with specific attributes, such as bitrate and dimensions. The entry may be a video, audio, image, or a document.
Flash Video is a file format used to deliver video over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player or other browser plug-ins. One of the most popular formats for embedded video on the web.
Adobe Flash Media Live Encoder is video capture software and audio capture software designed to capture live audio and video while streaming it in real time.
Flash Media Server
Flash Media Server (FMS) is a proprietary data and media server from Adobe. [Adobe] Alternatives to FMS include Red5, Wowza and Mammoth.
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a legal framework that sets guidelines for the collection and processing of personal information from individuals who live in the European Union (EU). Kaltura is committed to complying fully with the GDPR and supporting our customers in their own GDPR compliance process. To learn more about Kaltura’s Compliance with European Union Data Protection Laws, please see https://corp.kaltura.com/blog/kalturas-compliance-gdpr/.
This glossary describes the terminology and acronyms often used by the Kaltura Community to describe concepts in Media Management, Online Video and the Kaltura Platform.
A unique identifier in your organizational information system representing an actual organizational unit or an ad-hoc security group. A user can be a member of multiple groups and may hold a different organizational role in each group. The organizational role of a user within a unit/group may or may not be represented within the organization information system.
HTTP Live Streaming
HTTP Smooth Streaming
iDevice Operating System
Apple's proprietary mobile OS, developed and distributed exclusively for Apple hardware.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.
Kaltura Application Framework
The Kaltura Application Framework (KAF) is an extensible, feature rich, UI based configurable framework that streamlines the integration of Kaltura’s rich media capabilities into different publishing applications. The framework is constructed of modules that provide a packaged workflow and functionalities that can be easily embedded in another application as an iFrame, instead of integrating directly with the Kaltura APIs. The framework can decrease the integration time with your application dramatically and allow you to always get up to date new functionality by decoupling the added features from the integration itself. The embedded iFrames are all based on a responsive design to ensure that the integrated pages are displayed properly on any given area.
Kaltura Admin Console
An application for administering the Kaltura system, including management of Kaltura publisher accounts, transcoding queue, access to the service-level monitoring, users, batch processes and more. The Kaltura Admin Console is typically accessed by system administrators and the IT team.
Kaltura API Client Libraries
Kaltura client libraries are SDKs in numerous programming languages that provide easy access to the Kaltura API and facilitate developing Kaltura applications.
Self-contained, client-side combination of Kaltura widgets and server APIs, tailored to support specific media workflows or as an extension to a specific web content platform.
A Kaltura backend object for managing media collections and the end‑user entitlements to access and manage these media collections in MediaSpace. This backend entity manages MediaSpace Channels and MediaSpace Categories.
Kaltura Category ID
A Kaltura internal unique identifier of a single Kaltura Category Object.
Kaltura Category Reference ID
A Kaltura Category attribute designed to hold and connect the category to an external identifier such as the Group ID. Uniqueness of the Category Reference ID is not enforced by Kaltura.
Kaltura Cloud Edition
Kaltura’s Cloud Edition allows you to host your own edition of Kaltura’s Video Platform Software on one of our commercial cloud partners, including Amazon Web Services and the Rackspace Cloud.
Kaltura Community Edition
Kaltura's free, open-source, self-hosted version of the platform, supported by the Kaltura Community. The Community Edition is developed through the combined efforts of Kaltura and the community. The platform and its source code are available for free at www.kaltura.org.
A Kaltura Entry is a logical reference to your media asset. An entry encapsulates all physical media files generated during ingestion (source, “flavors” and thumbnails), standard and custom metadata, captions, scheduling settings, advertising cu epoints, specific access control settings and all other components relating to the content. An entry is generated immediately, once your source media file starts uploading and transcoding begins. Kaltura Entry types include base (Abstract), media, video, audio, image, data, document, playlist and more. Entry metadata includes type, storage location, title, tag, rating and etc. [API: KalturaBaseEntry, KalturaMediaEntry]
A Kaltura Gallery is a simple application that provides an efficient visual display of media entries, hosted on a Kaltura server.
"Data about other data". This term is commonly used within Kaltura documentation to describe the information being stored within the Kaltura database with relation to a specific entry. This may include: name, tags, admin tags, creation/modification dates, description, partner data etc. Kaltura's Metadata is a complex XSD driven multi-profile schema of fields.
Kaltura On-Prem Edition
Kaltura's full featured self-hosted Video Platform Software installed on your own servers or cloud and supported and maintained by Kaltura. The On-Prem Edition is offered either under an Enterprise license for organizations that need an online video platform for their own media, or under an OEM license for organizations that want to offer their own OVP services. Both licenses are offered with Kaltura maintenance and support services.
A critical piece of every video workflow is the playback and the user-experience while interacting with video. The Kaltura Video Player library abstracts the complexities around delivery of video across devices, browsers and native apps and the user-experience with your video. It provides a cross-platform rich UI framework, easy branding and customization features and even in-video quizzes, advertizing integrations, and a robust plugins-framework to create your own unique expeirences.
Kaltura SaaS Edition
Kaltura's full-featured Software-as-a-Service video platform, including full Kaltura support and services such as tier-1 hosting, streaming, delivery, transcoding, syndication, distribution, advertising, security, monitoring and more.
A schema is a model for describing the structure of information. Each data schema holds a list of customized fields. An XSD (XML Schema Definition) provides a way to describe and validate data in an XML environment.
Kaltura Server Notifications
HTTP POST requests that are sent upon specific media events from the Kaltura servers to a URL on partners' host servers. Kaltura server notifications enable partners to integrate with Kaltura’s technology in a way that is synchronized with media events occurring on Kaltura’s servers. An example of a Kaltura server notification is the entry_add notification, sent upon the completion of entry creation on the Kaltura servers. Partners can process this notification and enable or display this entry on their web site, only once it was actually added to the Kaltura servers.
A Kaltura backend object that holds information about a specific user and is identified by the User ID. Kaltura supports the management of different user attributes. The user ID is a mandatory attribute; the user’s first name, last name, and screen name (by default, the user’s full name) are required to enable convenient end-user management in MediaSpace and in the KMC. Kaltura User objects are automatically created in Kaltura for different scenarios. For user management purposes, Kaltura User objects also may be created manually from the KMC or using bulk services. The Kaltura User object is used for managing both KMC admins and application end‑users. Only KMC administrators have a special attribute granting access to the KMC account.
Kaltura Video Editing Tools
The Kaltura Video Editing Tools allow users to edit quizzes, clip or trim media, chop and splice media and add Hotdpots or advertisements to media. Note: Depending on the type of application you are using and the type of media you selected, the Video Editor window displays the relevant tabs.
Self-contained client-side components encapsulating graphics, media functionality and events control along with direct access to Kaltura APIs.
Kaltura Dynamic Player
Kaltura widget for media playing, providing graphics and direct API access for media streaming, playing, sharing, sound control, advertising and more.
Kaltura Editor Application
See Kaltura Video Editing Tools.
Kaltura Edge Server
Based on Nginx. A component that helps content be accessible wherever users are (remote sites as well the Headquarters/data-center, near the streaming server). Helps cache popular content for VOD and HTTP-based live (HDS/HLS), supports pre-positioning of content. Similar to CDN POP (node/edge). Purge scheduling is configured on the edge itself.
Kaltura Management Console
The KMC is a rich-media management system that enables you to ingest, manage, publish, distribute, monetize and analyze your media – all in one intuitive interface. You can use the KMC as an independent application, or as an administrative interface supporting other Kaltura applications.
Kaltura MediaSpace is a video portal for every campus or a corporate. Kaltura’s MediaSpace application, allows publishers to instantly launch a video-centric website, where users can search, browse, watch, create, share and edit videos, and video presentations, with full user management, and moderation options.
Use the Login request to create an active session for a user. The login request returns a user session key called KS (Kaltura Session). The KS is mandatory for all user’s consecutive calls within that session.The KS is used to authenticate users and admins when calling the Kaltura API.
Kaltura Streaming Server
Based on the Wowza streaming server. Responsible for getting the stream from the encoder, segmenting it, packaging it, translating it to multiple bitrates on-the-fly, delivering it in several possible formats (HDS, HLS, etc.) and more. This component is the content origin. Usually resides in the customer’s Data Center.
An object representing end-user with various permissions or roles. [API Kaltura User]
Live video - The delay that a viewer experiences between delivery of a video image and its audio signal. Media player - The delay that a viewer experiences between pressing Play and viewing a video.
Learning Management System
Multi Audio-Multi Subtitle
An open/private/restricted category in MediaSpace that a specific group of users (category members) is able to access. Categories are centrally created via the Kaltura Management Console (KMC) and reflect the navigation structure of your MediaSpace site. The list of people with permission to access the category may derive from user membership in a specific organizational group or may be defined manually by the category manager with no relation to organizational structure and units.
An open/private/restricted channel in MediaSpace that a specific group of users (channel members) is able to access. The list of people with permissions to access the group channel may derive from user membership in a specific organizational group or may be defined manually by the channel manager with no relation to organizational structure and units. Note: MediaSpace Channels can be associated with one or more MediaSpace Category according to the entitlements set in the category.
A pre-roll is a video advertisement that appears at the middle of media content.
Machine Object file
The MO file includes the exact same contents as PO file. The two files differ in their format. While a PO file is a text file and is easy for humans to read, MO files are compiled and are easy for computers to read. Basically, when you deploy your mobile/web application (or build your software) all PO files are converted into MO files, so the application is able to read the file faster and your application stays fast.
Media Really Simple Syndication
Media Really Simple Syndication (or Media RSS) is a web feed format used to export your videos, audio, and images to 3rd party platforms such as Google, Bing!, iTunes, and other video sharing sites and social networks. Once the MRSS feed is applied on your Kaltura app, audiance can subscribe and get notified each time that their website or application is updated.
Network personal video recorder (NPVR) or Network DVR (NDVR), or remote storage digital video recorder (RS-DVR) is a network-based digital video recorder (DVR) stored at the provider's central location rather than at the consumer's private home. Traditionally, media content was stored in a subscriber's set-top box hard drive, but with NDVR the service provider owns a large number of servers, on which the subscribers' media content is stored. The term RS-DVR is used by Cablevision for their version of this technology.
Original Equipment Manufacturer
Kaltura can be licensed under a commercial OEM license, allowing partners to launch their own self-hosted, white labeled, customized online video platform services using their data center or cloud or choice.
On-premises is the software and technology that is located within the physical confines of an enterprise – often in the company's data center – as opposed to running remotely on hosted servers or in the cloud.
(Vodafone) Operational Country Organization
Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.
Object-relational mapping. Allows access to a database using a set of objects. Kaltura uses open source Propel as its ORM solution.
Operational Support System
Over The Top
Open Video Platform
Platform as a Service
Platform as a service (PaaS) is cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.
The Kaltura Account ID (Partner Id) A numeric identifier that uniquely identifies an account in Kaltura. The Partner ID can be retrieved through the KMC via the Integration Settings.
A list of playable media entries (video, image, audio). A Kaltura Playlist can be created according to a static list of entries or a rule-based dynamically generated list. It can be randomized or ordered according to rules. The Kaltura Players also have a special UI plugin for rendering playlists, allowing playback navigation and search in the playlist.
Portable Object file
PO files are editable text-based files that contain the application's original text and the translation. The PO file structure is made in pairs, the source text and the target/translated text. For example, in the French PO file you might have a translation of a string as follows:msgid "Hello world", msgstr "Bonjour le monde". Each language will have its PO file with its target translation.
A pre-roll is a video advertisement that appears at the end of media content.
Packets Per Second
A pre-roll is a video advertisement that appears at the beginning of media content.
An entity used to describe a publisher's end-user. This is not a Kaltura User, but a user identified via external publisher systems such as company's LDAP or SSO systems.
Request For Proposal
Return On Investment
Is a ratio between net profit (over a period) and cost of investment (resulting from an investment of some resources at a point in time). A high ROI means the investment's gains compare favourably to its cost. As a performance measure, ROI is used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiencies of several different investments.
Real-Time Messaging Protocol
Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) is a proprietary protocol, originally developed by Macromedia (now Adobe), for real-time streaming of video, audio, and data between a server and Flash player. Though Adobe has announced that it will no longer support Flash, RTMP remains a commonly used protocol for live streaming within production workflows.
Software as a Service
Software as a Service, also known as cloud application services, represents the most commonly utilized option for businesses in the cloud market. SaaS utilizes the internet to deliver applications, which are managed by a third-party vendor, to its users. A majority of SaaS applications run directly through your web browser, which means they do not require any downloads or installations on the client side.
A scale line in a media player. Usually used as a progress bar and for moving/seeking withing the video playback.
Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
Statement of Work
Single sign-on (SSO) is an authentication scheme that allows a user to log in with a single ID and password to any of several related, yet independent, software systems.
Transmission of digital audio or video, or the listening and viewing of such data without first storing it. Streaming is mostly measured by the amount of bandwidth consumed while serving content.
Sub Partner ID
A numeric identifier originally defined to enable sub partitioning of Kaltura accounts. The value of the Sub Partner ID is always 100 X Partner ID (100 multiplied by the Publisher ID).
In Scheduling, the time that an entry becomes accessible to end users in the destination site.
In Scheduling, the time that an entry becomes inaccessible to end users in the destination site.
Streaming Video On Demand
‘Small Web Format’ by Adobe. This is the dominant format for displaying "animated" vector graphics on the web, also supporting audio, video and many different possible forms of interaction with the end-user.
A non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to an entry to help describe it and allow it to be found again through a search. Tags are often used to relate media together.
To Be Defined
A small version of an image, or an image representing a video, commonly used for preview purposes.
Direct digital-to-digital conversion of one encoding to another.
Time Shifted Television
Transactional Video On Demand
Unique Device Identifier
The uiConf_ID is used to reference the player instance you wish to render when embedding a video in your pages or app views.
A user’s unique identifier in your organization’s information systems. The same ID is used in Kaltura as a unique identifier of the user in a specific partner account.
Uniform Resource Identifier
Uniform Resource Locator
A user’s unique identifier in your organization’s information systems. The same ID is used in Kaltura as a unique identifier of the user in a specific partner account.
A unique end-user-level security string assigned to a specific Kaltura Partner. This is used by the Kaltura servers as a key for authenticating end-user API sessions initiated by client-side applications utilizing Kaltura technology.
Video On Demand
The ability for a publisher to re-brand the Kaltura solutions as its own.